The first step in the generation of energy in a hydropower plant is the collection of run-off of seasonal rain and snow in lakes, streams and rivers, during the hydrological cycle. The run-off flows to dams downstream. The water falls through a dam, into the hydropower plant and turns a large wheel called a turbine. The turbine converts the energy of falling water into mechanical energy to drive the generator After this process has taken place electricity is transferred to the communities through transmission lines and the water is released back into the lakes, streams or rivers. This is entirely not harmful, because no pollutants are added to the water while it flows through the hydropower plant.
Hydropower is called renewable source of energy because it uses and not consumes the water for generation of electricity, and the hydropower leaves this vital resource available for other uses.
Different types of Hydro Schemes are:
Hydropower is a renewable, economic, non polluting and environmentally benign source of energy. It saves scarce fossil fuel resources of the country, which are non renewable. Hydropower projects have certain distinctive advantages over other sources of electricity generation, as discussed below:
Technical Benefits: Hydropower projects are known to have much longer life and provide cheaper electricity as there is no fuel cost and the recurring cost involved in generation, operation and maintenance is lower than that in case of other sources of energy.